June 21, 2024
1 Solar System Way, Planet Earth, USA
Science And Technology

Venus: the hottest planet in the solar system

Venus, the second planet from the Sun, holds the title of the hottest planet in our Solar System, exhibiting an extreme greenhouse effect due to its thick atmosphere composed mainly of carbon dioxide. We can easily spot Venus from Earth thanks to its bright clouds. It looks like a super bright white object in the night sky. Explore the unique features of Venus and its fascinating mysteries in this comprehensive guide.


  • Venus, the second planet from the Sun, is approximately 108.2 million kilometers (67.2 million miles) away.
  • Despite being the closest planet to Earth in terms of distance, Venus differs greatly from our home planet.
  • Venus' dense atmosphere traps heat, resulting in surface temperatures high enough to melt lead.
Venus Position
Venus Position


  • Venus formed about 4.5 billion years ago from the same cloud of gas and dust that gave rise to the rest of the Solar System.

Physical characteristics

  • Venus is often referred to as Earth's “sister planet” due to its similar size and composition.
  • It has a diameter of about 12,104 kilometers (7,521 miles), making it slightly smaller than Earth.
  • Venus' mass is about 81.5% of Earth's, while its gravity is about 90% of Earth's.

Atmosphere and climate

Surface characteristics

  • The surface of Venus is characterized by vast plains, mountainous regions, and thousands of volcanoes, including large shield volcanoes and enormous lava flows.
  • Venus consists of a central iron core and a rocky mantle, similar in composition to that of Earth. However, its turbulent atmosphere is composed mainly of carbon dioxide (96%) and nitrogen (3.5%), accompanied by small amounts of carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, water vapor, argon and helium, which constitute the 0.5% remaining.
Surface of Venus

Rotation and orbit

  • Venus rotates very slowly on its axis and takes about 243 Earth days to complete one rotation.
  • A day on Venus (one rotation) is longer than a year, as it orbits the Sun every 225 Earth days.

Facts about Venus

Size0.95 Lands
Diameter12,104 kilometers
Mass4.867 × 10^24 kg (0.815 Earths)
Aphelion0.728 Astronomical Units (AU)
perihelion0.718 AU
Gravity0.91 times Earth's gravity
Orbital period225 Earth days
Rotational period243 Earth days
Surface temperature462°C (864°F) at its hottest
Composition of the atmosphere96.5% carbon dioxide, 3.5% nitrogen
0.015% sulfur dioxide, traces of other gases
Surface characteristicsVolcanoes, lava plains, huge impact craters
geological activityExtensive volcanism, limited tectonic activity.
Magnetic fieldweak magnetic field
Venus Fact Sheet

These features offer insights into the environment and unique geological features of Venus, shaping its status as Earth's closest planetary neighbor and one of the most inhospitable worlds in the Solar System.


  • Numerous space missions, including NASA's Magellan and the Soviet Union's Venera program, have provided valuable information about the atmosphere and surface of Venus.

Future missions

  • Future exploration missions to Venus aim to study its atmosphere, surface and geological activity more completely.
  • Venus remains a fascinating celestial body that offers scientists valuable information about the dynamics of planetary atmospheres and climate systems.
  • Continued exploration and study of Venus has the potential to reveal more mysteries about the evolution of our Solar System's rocky planets.

Comparison between Earth and Venus

SizeApproximately 12,742 km in diameterA little smaller, about 12,104 km in diameter.
Distance from the sunApproximately 149.6 million kilometersCloser to the Sun, about 108.2 million kilometers.
AtmosphereMainly nitrogen (about 78%) and oxygen (about 21%)Predominated by carbon dioxide (about 96%) with nitrogen (about 3.5%) and traces of other gases.
Surface temperatureAverage surface temperature around 14°C (57°F)Extremely hot, averaging about 462 °C (864 °F)
Surface characteristicsVarious, including oceans, mountains and continents.Mostly volcanic plains with few impact craters.
moonsA natural satellite, the Moonno moons
Magnetic fieldStrong magnetic fieldweak magnetic field
Rotation and orbitIt rotates once every 24 hours, orbiting the Sun once every 365.25 days.It rotates very slowly, one rotation lasts approximately 243 Earth days, it orbits the Sun once every 225 Earth days.
Atmospheric pressureApproximately 101.3 kilopascals (kPa) at sea levelExtremely high, approximately 92 times higher than that of Earth.
Comparison between Earth and Venus

Venus FAQ

Q: What is Venus?

A: Venus is the second planet from the Sun in our Solar System and is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty.

Q: How far is Venus from the Sun?

A: On average, Venus orbits about 108.2 million kilometers (67.2 million miles) from the Sun.

Q: How does the size of Venus compare to that of Earth?

A: Venus is very similar in size to Earth, with a diameter of approximately 12,104 kilometers (7,521 miles).

Q: What is a day on Venus like?

A: A day on Venus, defined as one rotation on its axis, lasts approximately 243 Earth days, making it longer than its year.

Q: What is the atmosphere of Venus composed of?

A: Venus' atmosphere is predominantly composed of carbon dioxide (CO2), with traces of nitrogen and other gases.

Q: What is the surface temperature of Venus?

A: Venus has a scorching surface temperature that averages around 900°F (475°C), making it the hottest planet in our Solar System.

Q: Does Venus have moons?

A: No, Venus does not have moons orbiting around it.

Q: Why is Venus sometimes called Earth's twin?

A: Venus is often referred to as Earth's twin due to its similar size and composition, although its extreme conditions make it very different.

Q: What makes Venus' atmosphere so thick?

A: Venus' thick atmosphere is primarily due to the buildup of carbon dioxide, which creates a powerful greenhouse effect, trapping heat and causing extreme temperatures.

Q: Have there been any missions to explore Venus?

A: Yes, several space missions, including NASA's Magellan spacecraft and the Soviet Union's Venera probes, have been sent to explore Venus and study its atmosphere, surface and geological features.

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